The first step is to create a project and add the different Burn dependencies. Start by creating a new project with Cargo:

cargo new my-first-burn-model

As mentioned previously, this will initialize your my-first-burn-model project directory with a Cargo.toml and a src/ file.

In the Cargo.toml file, add the burn dependency with train, wgpu and vision features. Then run cargo build to build the project and import all the dependencies.

name = "my-first-burn-model"
version = "0.1.0"
edition = "2021"

burn = { version = "0.13.2", features = ["train", "wgpu", "vision"] }

Our goal will be to create a basic convolutional neural network used for image classification. We will keep the model simple by using two convolution layers followed by two linear layers, some pooling and ReLU activations. We will also use dropout to improve training performance.

Let us start by defining our model struct in a new file src/

use burn::{
        conv::{Conv2d, Conv2dConfig},
        pool::{AdaptiveAvgPool2d, AdaptiveAvgPool2dConfig},
        Dropout, DropoutConfig, Linear, LinearConfig, Relu,

#[derive(Module, Debug)]
pub struct Model<B: Backend> {
    conv1: Conv2d<B>,
    conv2: Conv2d<B>,
    pool: AdaptiveAvgPool2d,
    dropout: Dropout,
    linear1: Linear<B>,
    linear2: Linear<B>,
    activation: Relu,

There are two major things going on in this code sample.

  1. You can create a deep learning module with the #[derive(Module)] attribute on top of a struct. This will generate the necessary code so that the struct implements the Module trait. This trait will make your module both trainable and (de)serializable while adding related functionalities. Like other attributes often used in Rust, such as Clone, PartialEq or Debug, each field within the struct must also implement the Module trait.

    🦀 Trait

    Traits are a powerful and flexible Rust language feature. They provide a way to define shared behavior for a particular type, which can be shared with other types.

    A type's behavior consists of the methods called on that type. Since all Modules should implement the same functionality, it is defined as a trait. Implementing a trait on a particular type usually requires the user to implement the defined behaviors of the trait for their types, though that is not the case here as explained above with the derive attribute. Check out the explainer below to learn why.

    For more details on traits, take a look at the associated chapter in the Rust Book.

    🦀 Derive Macro

    The derive attribute allows traits to be implemented easily by generating code that will implement a trait with its own default implementation on the type that was annotated with the derive syntax.

    This is accomplished through a feature of Rust called procedural macros, which allow us to run code at compile time that operates over Rust syntax, both consuming and producing Rust syntax. Using the attribute #[my_macro], you can effectively extend the provided code. You will see that the derive macro is very frequently employed to recursively implement traits, where the implementation consists of the composition of all fields.

    In this example, we want to derive the Module and Debug traits.

    #[derive(Module, Debug)]
    pub struct MyCustomModule<B: Backend> {
        linear1: Linear<B>,
        linear2: Linear<B>,
        activation: Relu,

    The basic Debug implementation is provided by the compiler to format a value using the {:?} formatter. For ease of use, the Module trait implementation is automatically handled by Burn so you don't have to do anything special. It essentially acts as parameter container.

    For more details on derivable traits, take a look at the Rust appendix, reference or example.

  2. Note that the struct is generic over the Backend trait. The backend trait abstracts the underlying low level implementations of tensor operations, allowing your new model to run on any backend. Contrary to other frameworks, the backend abstraction isn't determined by a compilation flag or a device type. This is important because you can extend the functionalities of a specific backend (see backend extension section), and it allows for an innovative autodiff system. You can also change backend during runtime, for instance to compute training metrics on a cpu backend while using a gpu one only to train the model. In our example, the backend in use will be determined later on.

    🦀 Trait Bounds

    Trait bounds provide a way for generic items to restrict which types are used as their parameters. The trait bounds stipulate what functionality a type implements. Therefore, bounding restricts the generic to types that conform to the bounds. It also allows generic instances to access the methods of traits specified in the bounds.

    For a simple but concrete example, check out the Rust By Example on bounds.

    In Burn, the Backend trait enables you to run tensor operations using different implementations as it abstracts tensor, device and element types. The getting started example illustrates the advantage of having a simple API that works for different backend implementations. While it used the WGPU backend, you could easily swap it with any other supported backend.

    // Choose from any of the supported backends.
    // type Backend = Candle<f32, i64>;
    // type Backend = LibTorch<f32>;
    // type Backend = NdArray<f32>;
    type Backend = Wgpu;
    // Creation of two tensors.
    let tensor_1 = Tensor::<Backend, 2>::from_data([[2., 3.], [4., 5.]], &device);
    let tensor_2 = Tensor::<Backend, 2>::ones_like(&tensor_1);
    // Print the element-wise addition (done with the selected backend) of the two tensors.
    println!("{}", tensor_1 + tensor_2);

    For more details on trait bounds, check out the Rust trait bound section or reference.

Note that each time you create a new file in the src directory you also need to add explicitly this module to the file. For instance after creating the, you need to add the following at the top of the main file:

mod model;

Next, we need to instantiate the model for training.

#[derive(Config, Debug)]
pub struct ModelConfig {
    num_classes: usize,
    hidden_size: usize,
    #[config(default = "0.5")]
    dropout: f64,

impl ModelConfig {
    /// Returns the initialized model.
    pub fn init<B: Backend>(&self, device: &B::Device) -> Model<B> {
        Model {
            conv1: Conv2dConfig::new([1, 8], [3, 3]).init(device),
            conv2: Conv2dConfig::new([8, 16], [3, 3]).init(device),
            pool: AdaptiveAvgPool2dConfig::new([8, 8]).init(),
            activation: Relu::new(),
            linear1: LinearConfig::new(16 * 8 * 8, self.hidden_size).init(device),
            linear2: LinearConfig::new(self.hidden_size, self.num_classes).init(device),
            dropout: DropoutConfig::new(self.dropout).init(),
🦀 References

In the previous example, the init() method signature uses & to indicate that the parameter types are references: &self, a reference to the current receiver (ModelConfig), and device: &B::Device, a reference to the backend device.

pub fn init<B: Backend>(&self, device: &B::Device) -> Model<B> {
    Model {
        // ...

References in Rust allow us to point to a resource to access its data without owning it. The idea of ownership is quite core to Rust and is worth reading up on.

In a language like C, memory management is explicit and up to the programmer, which means it is easy to make mistakes. In a language like Java or Python, memory management is automatic with the help of a garbage collector. This is very safe and straightforward, but also incurs a runtime cost.

In Rust, memory management is rather unique. Aside from simple types that implement Copy (e.g., primitives like integers, floats, booleans and char), every value is owned by some variable called the owner. Ownership can be transferred from one variable to another and sometimes a value can be borrowed. Once the owner variable goes out of scope, the value is dropped, which means that any memory it allocated can be freed safely.

Because the method does not own the self and device variables, the values the references point to will not be dropped when the reference stops being used (i.e., the scope of the method).

For more information on references and borrowing, be sure to read the corresponding chapter in the Rust Book.

When creating a custom neural network module, it is often a good idea to create a config alongside the model struct. This allows you to define default values for your network, thanks to the Config attribute. The benefit of this attribute is that it makes the configuration serializable, enabling you to painlessly save your model hyperparameters, enhancing your experimentation process. Note that a constructor will automatically be generated for your configuration, which will take as input values for the parameter which do not have default values: let config = ModelConfig::new(num_classes, hidden_size);. The default values can be overridden easily with builder-like methods: (e.g config.with_dropout(0.2);)

The first implementation block is related to the initialization method. As we can see, all fields are set using the configuration of the corresponding neural network underlying module. In this specific case, we have chosen to expand the tensor channels from 1 to 8 with the first layer, then from 8 to 16 with the second layer, using a kernel size of 3 on all dimensions. We also use the adaptive average pooling module to reduce the dimensionality of the images to an 8 by 8 matrix, which we will flatten in the forward pass to have a 1024 (16 _ 8 _ 8) resulting tensor.

Now let's see how the forward pass is defined.

impl<B: Backend> Model<B> {
    /// # Shapes
    ///   - Images [batch_size, height, width]
    ///   - Output [batch_size, num_classes]
    pub fn forward(&self, images: Tensor<B, 3>) -> Tensor<B, 2> {
        let [batch_size, height, width] = images.dims();

        // Create a channel at the second dimension.
        let x = images.reshape([batch_size, 1, height, width]);

        let x = self.conv1.forward(x); // [batch_size, 8, _, _]
        let x = self.dropout.forward(x);
        let x = self.conv2.forward(x); // [batch_size, 16, _, _]
        let x = self.dropout.forward(x);
        let x = self.activation.forward(x);

        let x = self.pool.forward(x); // [batch_size, 16, 8, 8]
        let x = x.reshape([batch_size, 16 * 8 * 8]);
        let x = self.linear1.forward(x);
        let x = self.dropout.forward(x);
        let x = self.activation.forward(x);

        self.linear2.forward(x) // [batch_size, num_classes]

For former PyTorch users, this might feel very intuitive, as each module is directly incorporated into the code using an eager API. Note that no abstraction is imposed for the forward method. You are free to define multiple forward functions with the names of your liking. Most of the neural network modules already built with Burn use the forward nomenclature, simply because it is standard in the field.

Similar to neural network modules, the Tensor struct given as a parameter also takes the Backend trait as a generic argument, alongside its dimensionality. Even if it is not used in this specific example, it is possible to add the kind of the tensor as a third generic argument. For example, a 3-dimensional Tensor of different data types(float, int, bool) would be defined as following:

Tensor<B, 3> // Float tensor (default)
Tensor<B, 3, Float> // Float tensor (explicit)
Tensor<B, 3, Int> // Int tensor
Tensor<B, 3, Bool> // Bool tensor

Note that the specific element type, such as f16, f32 and the likes, will be defined later with the backend.